February 27, 2018

Health Roundup: Cancer Edition

'Unheard of' responses to bluebird CAR-T therapy seen in myeloma study

More than half of patients with advanced multiple myeloma who had run out of therapeutic options remained in complete remission after receiving bluebird bio Inc's experimental gene-modifying immunotherapy in a small, early stage study, according to updated data released in December.

Of 18 patients who received a therapeutic dose of bb2121, all but one responded to the treatment, a 94 percent response rate, while 56 percent remained in remission with a median follow-up of 40 weeks after treatment. Researchers, who reported the data at the American Society of Hematology meeting in Atlanta, said the initial response to the treatment was very quick and that many of the patients continued to improve over time.

bb2121 belongs to a potentially revolutionary new type of one-time treatment called CAR-T therapy that involves genetic manipulation of a patient's immune system. A patient's own disease-fighting T-cells are harvested and genetically reengineered to target specific proteins on cancer cells before being replaced so they can circulate seeking out and attacking the cancer, possibly for years. The first two CAR-T therapies from Novartis and Gilead Sciences, through its acquisition of Kite Pharma, were approved earlier this year for other blood cancers.

Cancer “Vaccine” That Wipes out Tumors Ready for Human Trial

Researchers at Stanford University have developed a compound that when injected into a tumor destroys it along with all the other cancerous masses present in the body.  The combination of two agents that stimulate the immune system sparked a body-wide reaction in mice, destroying cancer cells both near and very far from the initial injection point. The success of the treatment, which worked for different types of cancer, means that human trials will be starting soon.
This surprisingly effective treatment works using the patient’s own immune cells.  The drugs “turn on” immune cells within the tumor that had previously been put to sleep by the cancer. The drugs then amplify the ability of these immune cells so they can be much more effective in targeting and destroying the invader.

The 'breakthrough' fast-track operation to save patients with deadly pancreatic cancer

The pancreas, which forms part of the digestive system and is critical to the control of blood sugar levels, is located deep inside the body — so cancer often doesn’t cause symptoms in the early stages and prompt diagnosis is difficult.  Even as the cancer grows, the symptoms — which can include tiredness, abdominal and back pain, unexplained weight loss, loss of appetite, changes to bowel habits and, later, jaundice — can be vague. Jaundice can occur if the pancreatic tumor presses on the bile duct, stopping the bile — a substance that helps break down fat — from passing through.
Jaundice complicates treatment, because traditionally medics have believed that operating on patients while they have it can trigger kidney failure, so patients have to wait an average of 65 days while the jaundice is treated with surgery.This is dealt with normally before cancer surgery. Experts believe this delay could be a factor in pancreatic cancer’s low survival rates....In the trial, instead of first having an operation to fit a stent, patients were sent straight into main pancreatic surgery to remove the tumor.

Cancer immunotherapy uses melanin against melanoma

Researchers have developed a melanin-enhanced cancer immunotherapy technique that can also serve as a vaccine, based on early experiments done in a mouse model. The technique is applied via a transdermal patch  and is made more effective by applying near infrared light.

"Melanin is a natural pigment that can efficiently transform absorbed sunlight energy into heat," says Zhen Gu, corresponding author of a paper on the work and an associate professor in the joint biomedical engineering program at North Carolina State University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. "We demonstrated that melanin, which is found at high levels in melanoma, can actually be used to help treat melanoma. We do this by shining near infrared (IR) light on a therapeutic skin patch, which promotes the systemic immune response that fights cancer."

Ovarian cancer doesn't start in the ovaries: 'Silent killer' begins in the fallopian tubes,

Two studies published last fall have confirmed that ovarian cancer actually starts in the fallopian tubes
Ovarian cancer, dubbed a 'silent killer', kills 14,000 women in the US each year.  Lead researcher Dr Ron Drapkin says the recent findings will likely lead to advancements in prevention, detection and treatment of the disease

Over-the-counter supplement reduces breast cancer aggressiveness by up to 80%,

Breakthrough study finds NAC, approved for colds, lowers levels of cancer aggressiveness marker by 80%, while the aggressive marker Ki67 decreases by 25%.  N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), which is sold as a supplement in Holland & Barrett in the UK and is approved as a cold and flu remedy in the US, and is available from Walgreens, Walmart and CVS and is priced from as little as $4.79 for a bottle of 30 600mg capsules.  The drug contains antioxidants that make tumors release nutrients, stopping growth. 

Researchers from the University of Salford analyzed 12 breast cancer patients.  Professor Lisanti said: 'High levels of 'MCT4 are extremely worrying as they are linked to aggressive cancer behavior and poor overall survival, so this is [a] very encouraging result....To be able to inhibit MCT4 protein expression, in a non-toxic way, is huge step forward'

Woman, 67, who battled blood cancer for five years 'recovers after treating it with TURMERIC'

A woman who battled blood cancer for years without success finally halted the disease with turmeric, it has been reported. Dieneke Ferguson, 67,  is now leading a normal life after giving up on grueling treatments that failed to stop it.  Doctors say her case is the first recorded instance in which a patient has recovered by using the spice after stopping conventional medical treatments.  With her myeloma spreading rapidly after three rounds of chemotherapy and four stem cell transplants, the 67-year-old began taking 8g of curcumin a day – one of the main compounds in turmeric.

HPV vaccine IS safe and effective, confirms longest-ever study into the shot which prevents cancer of the cervix, head, neck throat and penis

HPV is the most common sexually-transmitted infection.  The human papilloma virus can cause genital warts and a host of cancers, even if it is dormant.  The HPV vaccine is safe and effective at preventing human papilloma virus,  A 10-year study by Augusta University in Georgia found the shot protected all 1,661 participants from HPV for a decade. According to the longest investigation ever conducted on the relatively new shot, the vaccine protects against HPV and therefore HPV-linked cancers such as throat, head, neck, penis, and cervical cancer.

The vaccine is commonly used in children aged 9-12 in the US and the UK; it is offered as a three-shot in the US, and a two-shot in the UK. Those who received the shot earlier had a stronger immune response. Experts say they hope these findings will help drive up coverage rates.
Posted by Jill Fallon at 12:23 PM | Permalink

Health Roundup - Food edition

'Settled Science' Behind Dietary Guidelines Just Got Blown Up

For decades, the federal government's official dietary guidelines told people to cut fats and increase carbs in their diet, relying on supposedly settled nutrition science. A new study shows that the advice has been completely wrong.  That was the conclusion of a massive new study published in Lancet that followed 135,335 people in 18 countries on five continents.

The study found that consumption of fat was associated with a lower risk of mortality, while consumption of carbohydrates was associated with a higher risk. It found that the kind of fat didn't matter when it came to heart disease, and that saturated fat consumption was inversely related to strokes.....

The government's push for a low-fat, high-carb diets has contributed to the explosion in obesity in the U.S. The national obesity rate had been relatively flat between 1960 and 1980 — the first year the USDA issued its dietary guidelines. But less than a decade after 1980, obesity rates shot up from 15% to 23%.

Full-fat milk is better for the heart because it increases levels of good cholesterol, finds study

Participants' 'bad' cholesterol levels did not differ between the two types of milk. But whole milk raised HDL cholesterol which lowers heart attack and stroke risk. HDL transports bad cholesterol out of your arteries to your liver to be excreted. Experts have long recommended switching to skimmed or semi-skimmed milk. While this study is small, it adds weight to growing evidence full fat is healthier.  Past studies show full fat dairy is linked with lower risks of type 2 diabetes

How Killer Rice Crippled Tokyo and the Japanese Navy

Gleaming white rice was a status symbol—it was expensive and laborious to husk, hull, polish, and wash. In Japan, the poor ate brown rice, or other carbohydrates such as sweet potatoes or barley. The rich ate polished white rice, often to the exclusion of other foods.

This was a problem. Removing the outer layers of a grain of rice also removes one vital nutrient: thiamine, or vitamin B-1. Without thiamine, animals and humans develop kakke, now known in English as beriberi. But for too long, the cause of the condition remained unknown.

Whiskey may be better for you than wine

In a speech at the EuroMedLab conference in 2005, Dr. Jim Swan, who, granted, is a consultant to the drinks industry, reported that whiskey contains more ellagic acid (a free-radical fighting antioxidant) than red wine. “There has been much in the news about the health benefits of antioxidants in red wine. By contrast, very little has been said about malt whisky distillery science,” he said.  “However, research has shown that there are even greater health benefits to people who drink single malt whiskies. Why? Single malt whiskies have more ellagic acid than red wine.”

6 Ways Whiskey Is Actually Good for You

So long as your imbibe in moderation, here are five ways whiskey is actually good for your health.
1. Much like Champagne, whiskey can help lower your risk of dementia....
2. It serves as a digestion aid.  Drinking a whiskey after a large meal can help ease an upset stomach. Whiskey's high proof makes it an excellent digestif, stimulating the stomach's enzymes, which help break down food.
3. Single malt whiskies contain more ellagic acid  than red wine.  Ellagic acid is a free-radical fighting antioxidant.
4. There's a connection between moderate consumption and a lowered risk of stroke.  A study out from Harvard University reports that moderate alcohol consumption corresponds with a 25 to 40 percent reduction in risk of heart disease and ischemic (or clot-caused) stroke. "It's safe to say that alcohol is both a tonic and a poison,
5. Drinking in moderation benefits the heart and blood vessels.
6. It can help cure the common cold. In moderation, whiskey can dilate or widen your blood vessels. This helps with cold symptoms like congestion, by allowing more movement of the mucus membrane in your sinuses, or flushing out an infection.  Which explains why Hot Toddies have been a historical home remedy for cold and flu symptoms.

Drinking wine may protect teeth by destroying bacteria that cause cavities and gum disease, new research suggests.

Despite many dentists warning booze's acidic content can damage teeth, a study released today suggests antioxidants in wine significantly prevent bacteria that cause plaque, cavities and periodontal disease from sticking to gums.
Posted by Jill Fallon at 11:57 AM | Permalink

February 23, 2018

Miscellany #92

A Single Glowing Atom

David Nadlinger’s photo of a positively charged atom trapped in electric fields won the overall prize of science photography competition held by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and it’s continuing to impress people all over the world.  He called it “Single Atom in an Ion Trap."  The photographer managed to capture an illuminated atom suspended between electric fields. Magnified more, it's a pale purple dot that is so astonishing,  I was immediately reminded of the impact when we first saw our own pale, blue dot

 Atom-Blue Dot

These Bacteria Digest Toxic Metals And Poop Out Tiny Gold Nuggets

One metal-gobbling bacterium, Cupriavidus metallidurans, manages to ingest toxic metallic compounds and still thrive, producing tiny gold nuggets as a side-effect.

 Bacteria Poops Gold Nuggets
The arrows point to gold particles on C. metallidurans  (American Society of Microbiology)

Nuns, guns and the Wild West: the extraordinary tale of Sr. Blandina

According to legend, and to Sr. Blandina’s journal and letters, one of Billy the Kid’s gang members had been shot and was on the brink of death when the doctors of Trinidad, Colo. refused to treat him. Sister decided to take him in and cared for him for three months, nursing him back to health. But Billy the Kid (William Leroy) was still unhappy. Word got out that the outlaw was coming to town to scalp the four doctors of Trinidad in revenge. When he arrived, Sr. Blandina intervened, and convinced him to call off his mission on behalf of his man she had saved. After that incident, Sr. Blandina and Billy the Kid became friends. She once visited him in jail, and he once called off a stage-coach robbery as soon as he realized Sister was one of the passengers.

Rediscovering the Blazingly Bright Colors of Ancient Sculptures and why most of us grew up believing classical sculpture is white.

 Classical Statues Were Painted

The great story behind  John Singer Sargent's portrait of Theodore Roosevelt

 Theodore Roosevelt By John Singer Sargent, 1903

How to get dressed, 18th Century style
After watching this fascinating video, I now understand why women needed help to get dressed for the day and how they went to the toilet with all those clothes.

Before and After - Extraordinary Street Art

 Exreaordinary Street-Art

My Life Not Knowing What Colors Look Like.  A woman with color-blindness.

Here I am, 16 years old, at a brand new school, and I just want what every other 16-year-old wants: to fit in. I was leaving English class when this boy Thomas came up to me and said, “I think your eyes are bleeding.” I thought it was a prank, or a weird joke, and I just kind of laughed and shrugged it off.

When I got home later the makeup I’d put on that morning was still out on the dresser. My red lip liner and my brown eyeliner were both Clinique brand, and I’d mixed them up. Thomas thought my eyes were bleeding because I’d been wearing bright red lip liner on my eyes all day. I was mortified, and I never wanted to make that mistake again. To this day, I make sure my lip and eyeliner are always different brands.

Flowering Stones

Lithops are beautiful succulent plants that have evolved to avoid being eaten by grazing animals by blending in with the stones in their natural environment.  In the wild, Lithops inhabit vast dry regions of South Africa. Like a cactus, they survive due to their capacity to store water for long periods of time. The leaves are thick to store enough water for the plants to survive for months without rain.


The Reactionary: Aphorisms of Nicolás Gómez Dávila

Where Christianity disappears, greed, envy, and lust invent a thousand ideologies to justify themselves.

Society until yesterday had notables; today it only has celebrities.

In the modern state there now exist only two parties: citizens and bureaucracy.

The bourgeoisie is any group of individuals dissatisfied with what they have and satisfied with what they are.

In medieval society, society is the state; in the bourgeois society, state and society confront each other; in the Communist society, the state is society.

Beauty does not surprise us, but fills us till we overflow.

The Wheel of Feelings

Feeling a certain way, but not quite sure of the best word for it? The wheel of feelings is a literary (or thereapeutic) tool for lending precision to fear, anger, disgust, sadness, happiness and surprise.
Posted by Jill Fallon at 1:46 PM | Permalink

February 22, 2018

Some useful tips

Don't Be Like Me, The Passport Idiot

If you’re flying to Europe and your passport expires less than three months after your scheduled return date, you’re fucked! Some countries even require a six-month buffer between expiration and return date. This means that every day scores of extremely sad travelers are sent home from the airport because their passports, which have not expired, have effectively expired. I know this happens to a lot of people because I met many of them.

Why Reading Aloud Helps You Remember More Information

The dual effect of both speaking and hearing helps encode the memory more strongly.

An Effortless Way to Strengthen Your Memory

A surprisingly potent technique can boost your short and long-term recall – and it appears to help everyone from students to Alzheimer’s patients. When trying to memorize new material, it’s easy to assume that the more work you put in, the better you will perform. Yet taking the occasional down time – to do literally nothing – may be exactly what you need. Just dim the lights, sit back, and enjoy 10-15 minutes of quiet contemplation, and you’ll find that your memory of the facts you have just learnt is far better than if you had attempted to use that moment more productively....The remarkable memory-boosting benefits of undisturbed rest were first documented in 1900 ...

Is It Safe To Eat Deli Meat With A Metallic Sheen?

24 hidden iPhone settings you should know about

7. Stop web trackers
Through embedded ads, advertisers can track you across multiple websites. But the latest version of Safari for iOS 11 lets you prevent this activity, limiting sites' ability to monitor your browsing behavior. To enable this feature, open the Settings app, tap Safari, and turn on the Prevent Cross-Site Tracking option. While you're in this Safari menu, you can also block pop-up ads.

17. Secure your notes
Although it's convenient to keep extremely private information—such as passwords or ID numbers—in your iPhone's Notes app, you don't want anyone else to be able to access this information. So protect these notes with a password. In Settings, go to Notes, followed by Password. Here, you can set a code or a Touch ID lock. Inside the Notes app, lock a specific note by dragging it to the left in the list, tapping the lock icon, and entering your password.

22. Make notifications less distracting
Constant notifications can sap your attention span until it's impossible to get anything done. You can make these alerts less distracting by removing the preview snippets that come with them and tempt you to immediately check your phone. As an added bonus, changing this setting will protect your notifications from snoops who look at your lock screen. To remove the previews, open Settings and tap Notifications, then Show Previews, and finally Never.

24. Get bigger, bolder text
You don't have to settle for the iPhone's default text size and shape. If you open Settings and then tap Display & Brightness, you can use the Text Size and Bold Text options to change the on-screen typography. Not every app will comply with your choices, but all of Apple's native apps and all of the iOS settings screens will.
Posted by Jill Fallon at 1:38 PM | Permalink

February 16, 2018

Rules of Life from Barlow, McArdle, Peterson and Le Guin

A list of 25 Principles of Adult Behavior by John Perry Barlow

1. Be patient. No matter what.
2. Don’t badmouth: Assign responsibility, never blame. Say nothing behind another’s back you’d be unwilling to say, in exactly the same tone and language, to his face.
3. Never assume the motives of others are, to them, less noble than yours are to you.
4. Expand your sense of the possible.
5. Don’t trouble yourself with matters you truly cannot change.
6. Expect no more of anyone than you yourself can deliver.
7. Tolerate ambiguity.
8. Laugh at yourself frequently.
9. Concern yourself with what is right rather than who is right.
10. Never forget that, no matter how certain, you might be wrong.
11. Give up blood sports.
12. Remember that your life belongs to others as well. Do not endanger it frivolously. And never endanger the life of another.
13. Never lie to anyone for any reason. (Lies of omission are sometimes exempt.)
14. Learn the needs of those around you and respect them.
15. Avoid the pursuit of happiness. Seek to define your mission and pursue that.
16. Reduce your use of the first personal pronoun.
17. Praise at least as often as you disparage.
18. Never let your errors pass without admission.
19. Become less suspicious of joy.
20. Understand humility.
21. Forgive.
22. Foster dignity.
23. Live memorably.
24. Love yourself.
25. Endure.

After 45 Birthdays, Here Are '12 Rules for Life'  By Megan McArdle

1. Be kind. Mean is easy; kind is hard. Somewhere in eighth grade, many of us acquired the idea that the nasty putdown, the superior smile, the clever one liner, are the signs of intelligence and great personal strength. But this kind of wit is, to borrow from the great John Scalzi, “playing the game on easy mode.” Making yourself feel bigger by making someone else feel small takes so little skill that 12-year-olds can do it. Those with greater ambitions should leave casual cruelty behind them.

2. Politics is not the most important thing in the world. It’s just the one people talk about the most.... But your spouse and others around you matter more to your happiness than the government does. You will notice, as you go about your day, that many, many important things are riding on your spouse, things that will have immediate costs and benefits to you. Very few of the things that irritate you or bring you joy have anything to do with the government. So keep some perspective about politics. It doesn’t matter as much as the real people around you, and the real things you can do in the world. If you have to choose between politics and a friendship, choose the friendship every time.

5. Go to the party even when you don’t want to. Nine times in 10, you’ll be bored and go home early. But the 10th time, you will have a worthy experience or meet an interesting person. That more than redeems those other wasted hours.

6. Save 25 percent of your income. No, don’t tell me how expensive your city is; I have spent basically my whole life in New York and Washington, DC. You can save if you want to; what you really mean is “There are all these things I want more than financial security.” And you’re right: You do want them more than financial security right now. But when you’re comparison shopping brands of generic dog food, or begging your parents for a loan, you’ll wish you’d saved the money. So cut out the things in your life that matter less than the financial freedom that will let you take important risks while sleeping easy at night (which is to say, almost all of them except the people) and save more money.

7. Don’t just pay people compliments; give them living eulogies. Tell them exactly how great they are, in how many ways. Embarrass them. Here’s a funny thing I have learned by being just a little bit internet famous: it doesn’t matter how many times you hear them, the words “You are amazing, and here’s why” never get old. They do not go out of style. You will be wearing them to your 80th birthday party, along with a dazzling smile.

8. That thing you kinda want to do someday? Do it now. I mean, literally, pause reading this column, pick up the phone, and book that skydiving session. RIGHT NOW. I’ll wait. Pixels are patient. Don’t wait until you have the time to really relax and enjoy it. That will be approximately three decades from now, and it's highly possible you won't be able to enjoy it.

10. Don’t try to resolve fundamental conflicts with your spouse or roommates. The only people who win marital arguments about bedrock values are divorce lawyers.... You should never, ever argue with your spouse about anything that could be solved with a proper application of money or ingenuity. As for the rest: unless it is an existential threat to your future (out-of-control spending, wants/doesn’t want kids, abuse, substance problem, infidelity), leave it alone. On your deathbed, your spouse will be there, holding your hand. The dream house you’re dying to buy will not be.

11. Be grateful. No matter how awful your life seems at the moment, you have something to be grateful for. Focus on it with the laser-like, single-minded devotion of a dog eyeing a porterhouse.You have been granted 2 billion seconds on this planet, give or take. You are a billionaire! Many billionaires, however, squander most of their fortune on bitter recriminations about how unfair everything is. Many of them are right, and it really is unfair. But you won’t get a refund from the universe for the time you spent brooding about the unfairness. You lose them just as surely as a second spent experiencing joy, only they don’t even give you something nice to remember them by.

Jordan Peterson's 12 Rules

Rule 1: Stand up straight with your shoulders back.

Rule 2: Treat yourself like you would someone you are responsible for helping.

Rule 3: Make friends with people who want the best for you.

Rule 4: Compare yourself with who you were yesterday, not with who someone else is today.

Rule 5: Do not let your children do anything that makes you dislike them.

Rule 6: Set your house in perfect order before you criticize the world.

Rule 7: Pursue what is meaningful (not what is expedient).

Rule 8: Tell the truth – or, at least, don’t lie.

Rule 9: Assume that the person you are listening to might know something you don’t.

Rule 10: Be precise in your speech.

Rule 11: Do not bother children when they are skateboarding.

Rule 12: Pet a cat when you encounter one on the street.

Ursula Le Guin's Best Life Advice

“The way to make something good is to make it well.  If the ingredients are extra good (truffles, vivid prose, fascinating characters) that’s a help. But it’s what you do with them that counts. With the most ordinary ingredients (potatoes, everyday language, commonplace characters)—and care and skill in using them—you can make something extremely good.” —from Steering the Craft

“Go on and do your work. Do it well. It is all you can do.” —from A Wizard of Earthsea

“There’s a point, around the age of twenty, when you have to choose whether to be like everybody else the rest of your life, or to make a virtue of your peculiarities.” —from The Dispossessed

“Why should a woman of 74 want to be “in step with” anybody? Am I in an army, or something?” —from a 2004 interview in The Guardian.

Posted by Jill Fallon at 10:29 AM | Permalink

February 15, 2018

What happens to your body when you start exercising regularly?

What happens to your body when you start exercising regularly?

During that first workout, you might feel more alert and energized because ramping up your heart rate means a boost in overall blood flow and oxygen to the brain.....Over the next few weeks, you'll slowly start to ramp up production of mitochondria via a process called mitochondrial biogenesis. Mitochondria are the parts of your cells that convert carbs, fat, and protein into fuel that your muscles use to do their job, like flex and contract. After six to eight weeks, studies have shown that people can increase their mitochondria by up to 50%. With more mitochondria in your cells, you'll start to feel more fit, and your endurance will increase. So running three miles will no longer feel as difficult as it did during that first week.
Once you're six months in, all that hard work should finally start to show. If your workouts focus on strength training, you'll notice your muscles begin to take shape. You're also less likely to fall off the workout wagon at this point. Exercise programs often see a 50% dropout rate within the first six months, but after that more people stick with it.

Now, if you're more focused on cardio, then by nine months of regular exercise you should see about a 25% increase in your VO2 max. VO2 max is often used as a measure of fitness and refers to the rate your body can transport oxygen to your muscles for fuel. Basically, higher VO2 max means you can run faster for longer. So a 25% increase in VO2 max, for example, means you can run about 20% farther in the same amount of time.

After one year of regular exercise, your bones will be denser, which reduces your risk of osteoporosis. In fact, researchers have found that regular resistance training, when combined with aerobic exercise, can actually reverse the effects of osteoporosis after 12 months.

Now, if you maintain your exercise program long term, your body might not be the only thing to benefit. Your bank account may also beef up a bit. One study revealed that older people who exercised five days a week for at least 30 minutes saved, on average, $2,500 a year in medical costs for heart-related health problems alone.

You'll also be at a lower risk of developing arthritis, type 2 diabetes, dementia, and certain types of cancer like breast and colon.

In all probability, you're going to live longer than you otherwise would. And that longer life, it will likely feel more fulfilling, because exercise lowers the risk of anxiety and depression by reducing levels of stress hormones, like cortisol and adrenaline.
Posted by Jill Fallon at 12:37 PM | Permalink

Overcoming Fear

The Only Thing You Need to Do to Overcome Fear, According to Neuroscience

If you want to take action, which will eliminate fear, the only thing you need to do is make a commitment. Why? Commitment means an action is taking place and your brain is focusing on something else besides the fear.

Commitment always leads to confidence; it is a cycle. Action creates success and success will create confidence. If you don't have confidence, take action, and the confidence will come because you will find success because you will not be thinking about fear.

All fear is neutralized when commitment is proven through action. This is how your brain works.
Posted by Jill Fallon at 12:18 PM | Permalink