Scarcely a week goes by without news of a blood shortage somewhere in the United States. Summertime in particular sees supplies on the wane. With families on vacation and schools out of session, the American Red Cross regularly witnesses a dip in donations. But with one simple change, blood shortages in the United States could be drastically reduced, or perhaps eliminated entirely. It's a solution seemingly out of Count Dracula's playbook: drain blood from the dead.
Unpalatable and macabre at first glance, the idea actually makes a lot of sense. Roughly 15 million pints of blood are donated each year by approximately 9.2 million individuals. Over the course of the same year, about 2.6 million Americans will -- sadly -- pass away. If hospitals were to harvest the blood from a third of those people, roughly 4.5 million liters would be added to the reservoir.
Contrary to what you might think, blood from cadavers is not only usable, but quite safe.
"For six to eight hours, the blood inside a dead body remains sterile and the red blood cells retain their oxygen-carrying capabilities," Mary Roach reported in her book Stiff. In fact, as Roach further described, "For twenty-eight years, the Sklifosovsky Institute [in Moscow] happily transfused cadaver blood, some twenty-five tons of the stuff, meeting 70 percent of its clinics needs."
The idea has never caught on in the United States, however, primarily out of public distaste. Tampering with the body of a deceased individual frequently evokes ethical conundrums and moral aversions in the minds of many.
However, draining the blood from a body is hardly out of the ordinary; it's actually a regular part of the embalming process…..
….. staff might have to be trained in a more primitive technique. After obtaining familial consent and conducting necessary tests, a larger needle attached to a more voluminous tube would be inserted into the jugular vein at the neck. Then the body would be tilted downward so the blood flows out with the aid of gravity. Simple, effective, yet perhaps a tad morbid…
According to the American Red Cross, someone in the U.S. needs blood every two seconds, and more than 41,000 donations are needed each day. Taking blood from cadavers could ensure that no patient is ever deprived of the life-giving blood they need.
Is this any different from organ donation?
In 1997, Richard Norris's face was blown off in a terrible accident. Five years later, plastic surgeons attempted a revolutionary new type of treatment: a full face transplant. Surgeons have performed this operation since 2005. 23 of the 27 transplants have been successful. In this happily successful surgery, the donor was 21-year old Joshua Aversano, who died in a car accident.
Recently, the Australian news program 60 Minutes introduced Norris to Aversano's family. He met his donor's sister, Rebekah.
The parents of 11-year-old Liang Yaoyi were stunned by his request. As cancer ravaged his body, the fifth grader from the Chinese city of Shenzhen focused on how he could save others if he could not survive his own battle.
"There are many people doing great things in the world," he said from his sickbed according to the ChinaDaily.com. "They are great, and I want to be a great kid too." He told his parents he wanted to donate his organs so others could live.
On Friday, the brave young boy who dreamed of becoming a doctor lost his battle with brain cancer. Immediately, doctors went to work removing his organs for transplant. Hospital officials said his kidney and liver were transplanted into other patients who were suffering from life-threatening ailments.
As his body was wheeled for the surgery room, the medical team stopped and formed an honor guard, bowing to the gurney carrying Yoayi’s remains in honor of the brave boy.
We have replaced the age old fear of being buried alive with a new one.
Paralyzed stroke victim experiences every patient's worst nightmare as he hears doctors discussing whether to donate his organs but couldn't speak out. While on an outing with his family on the Gothenburg archipelago, Jim Fritze suffered a brain hemorrhage.
'I managed to catch my girlfriend's attention - I was bright red in the face, and she's a nurse so she managed to keep my airways open,' Mr Fritze said. An air ambulance was unable to land on the island, so he had to wait nearly two hours to reach Sahlgrenska hospital by boat.
[He lay] paralyzed in hospital and listened in horror as doctors discussed organ donation with his family after telling them he would not survive. Jimi Fritze, 43, heard every word but couldn't protest because he was unable to speak.
His heartbroken relatives had come to say their final goodbyes after doctors said brain scans showed he had 'no hope' of pulling through. As they surrounded his hospital bed, doctors asked the family about the possibility of donating his organs when he died, not realising Mr Fritze could also hear the conversation.
Mr Fritze said: 'Only my ears and eyes were working. They (the doctors) told my girlfriend that there was no hope'.
But three days later another doctor who had returned from holiday gave more positive prognosis. Mr Fritze said: 'She looked at my scans and said "This doesn't look too bad" and told the staff to give me cortisone to bring down the swelling in my brain.'
It took another three weeks before he could communicate his horror to his family and more than two years on he has only just recovered enough to take action against the hospital. He has sent an official complaint to the health and welfare board, which oversees quality of healthcare in Sweden.
Connor Rabinowitz fell in love at first sight with the sister of the man whose heart was now beating inside his chest.
Lucky to get the donor heart of Kellen Roberts after his health collapsed because of a genetic heart condition, Rabinowitz was bowled over when he met Erin - just over a year after his transplant.
Although he was only 17-years-old at the time and she was 26 when they first met in 2004, the electric chemistry between the pair persisted until they got together in 2010 - with both feeling that deceased Kellen helped them to become lovers.
'We had an instant connection – we both feel that Kellen bought us together,' Connor said to the UK's Daily Mirror.
During his recovery, Connor decided that he wanted to write a letter to the family of the donor - who were protected by anonymity.
'Kellen’s mother Nancy got in touch immediately and a few months later my mum flew to meet her. Six months after that I was well enough to visit too.
'It was an emotional meeting and as Nancy put her hand on my chest to feel Kellen’s heart beating inside me, I saw Erin for the first time.
'We locked eyes – and I was smitten. Erin felt the connection too but she tried to dismiss it, thinking I was too young.
'She took me sightseeing for the weekend and we felt so comfortable together, like we’d known each other our entire lives. I visited twice more and felt the same, but we were both dating other people.' While school assistant Erin thought that Connor was too young and had a teenage crush on her, the two lost contact for five-years - but got back in touch using Facebook in 2010.
We were both single for the first time and everything just fell into place,' said Connor.
All of the family tell me stories about Kellen. He is always in my thoughts – and obviously in my heart. He was a great guy – he always looked out for people. Through him, I hope I can do the same. If I was to meet him today, it would be like meeting my other half.'
'I was now forever connected with this young man who sacrificed his life and chose to save mine,' Connor told the West Seattle Herald.
'He is my hero, my guardian angel and I will be forever grateful for his decision to donate his organs.'
Before her passing at age 61 last month, Miriam Aguirre Santos restated and put down in writing her final wish - to have her eyes given to her son.
When he was 5 years old, the Cuban-born Juan Aguirre was struck by a drunken driver while walking on the island where his family owned a house. The crash damaged the cornea in his left eye, leaving his vision permanently blurry. But all that changed earlier this month.
Within days of his mother's death from a heart attack, Mr Aguirre, 39, underwent the first ever mother-son corneal transplant surgery in the history of the Florida Lions Eye Bank.
‘It’s like a whole new world has opened up,’ the 39-year old Aguirre told the Miami Herald. ‘I’m seeing things like I never did before. Everything is very, very colorful.’
Juan's childhood accident that left his cornea severely scarred did not stop him from becoming a successful musician performing under the stage name Diablo Dimes.
Besides her eyes, which she had donated to help her son, Aguirre Santos saved the lives of two other people who received her liver and kidneys.
As for Juan Aguirre, he said that every time he looks at himself in the mirror now, he sees his mother's eyes staring back at him.
'I know that she'll be with me forever,' he told the paper.
Doctors at St. Joseph's hospital in Central New York were in the process of starting surgery to harvest a dead woman's organs when that woman opened her eyes. She was still alive.
That massive mistake has now cost the hospital $6,000 after a federal inquiry in addition to another fine of $16,000 after another patient fell and injured her head when she was left unattended in 2011, according to reporting in the Syracuse Post-Standard.
Colleen S. Burns of North Syracuse, New York, 41, had been admitted to the hospital in October 2009 for a drug overdose. Because of a series of mistakes in evaluation, doctors believed that the woman was dead and started the organ donation process.
The state Health Department investigation of the incident found that when Burns was first admitted, they skipped a recommended treatment that would prevent the drugs she had taken - Xanax, Benadryl and a muscle relaxant - from being absorbed by her stomach and intestines. They also didn't do enough testing to see if she was free of drugs or perform enough brain scans. Because they didn't perform enough of these scans, doctors believed that Burns was brain dead, when in reality the over dose had put her in a coma.
After doctors said she was essentially brain dead, her family agreed to take her off life support and her organs donated. But the day before the organs were to be removed, a nurse performed a reflex test and found that Burns was still reacting. She scraped her finger on the bottom of one of Burns' feet and her toes curled downward, a sign that she was still alive.
And that wasn't the only sign of life. As she was being wheeled to the operating room, Burns' nostrils flared and it seemed she was breathing independently from the respirator. Her lips and tongue were moving as well. But doctors ignored the nurse's observations which indicated Burns was still alive, and proceeded with the surgery anyway
Before the procedure, Burns was given an injection of the sedative Ativan, but neither the sedative or the observations of life were recorded in the doctor's notes for the procedure. Dr. David Mayer, a general vascular surgeon and associate professor of clinical surgery an New York Medical College, said the application of a sedative is quite strange.
'It would sedate her to the point that she could be non-reactive,' Mayer told the Post-Standard. 'If you have to sedate them or give them pain medication, they're not brain dead and you shouldn't be harvesting their organs.'
It wasn't until Burns opened her eyes in the OR that the procedure was called off.
Neither Burns or her family sued the hospital for malpractice. Sixteen months later, a determined Burns successfully committed suicide. Her mother, Lucille Kuss said her daughter wasn't upset about the incident. 'She was so depressed that it really didn't make any difference to her,' Kuss said.
The hospital didn't even report the incident, nor conduct an investigation of their own. It wasn't until after the Post-Standard started their investigation that the hospital put out any sort of explanation for what happened. According to the federal report: 'The hospital did not undertake an intensive and critical review of the near catastrophic event in this case.'
Carina Melchior is a 20-year-old Danish woman who was plunged in the middle of controversy by two close encounters with death — the first in a car crash last year that put her in a coma; the second in a hospital, where doctors persuaded her parents to donate her organs and shut off her life support.
But Carina recovered, and she now is at the center of a storm of questions about the criteria for brain death, over-aggressive transplant agencies and the commodification of the human body.
What might have been played out quietly in an obscure Danish civil-law courtroom became a national cause célèbre with the airing early in October of a TV documentary called Pigen Der Ikke Ville Do (The Girl Who Refused to Die) that was viewed by 1.7 million people.
The documentary follows the Melchior family as they learn of the seriousness of Carina’s injuries, are told she cannot recover because her brain is dead, and are asked to donate her organs to people who need them.
Carina’s father, Kim Melchior, asks if there is any chance of “a small miracle anywhere.” None, the medical staff at Aarhus University Hospital reply.
But a few days after being taken off her respirator, while hospital attendants are waiting for her body to shut down, Carina began to move her legs and open her eyes.
The documentary shows her awake and expressing confidence in her ability to recover, get her own apartment, begin work and resume her pastime of horse jumping.
“I will be working as a graphic designer and be able to ride Mathilde properly,” she tells the interviewer.
The hospital administration reacted with a mixture of embarrassment at their mistake and pleasure at the girl’s recovery.
“We are overjoyed that the young woman has survived and that she is moving on after the accident,” said chief medical officer Claus Thomsen.
The hospital has apologized for asking permission of her parents prematurely, while insisting that there was no chance that organ harvesting would have proceeded while the girl was still breathing.
The girl who wouldn't die Incredible story of the 19-year-old who woke up as doctors were preparing to harvest her organs
A teenage girl in a coma after a catastrophic car crash came round just as doctors were about to declare her brain dead. Carina Melchior had had life support withdrawn on the advice of medics and was being prepared for organ donation.
But to the astonishment of staff at the Aarhus Hospital, in Denmark, the 19-year-old suddenly opened her eyes and started moving her legs.
She is now making a good recovery at a rehabilitation centre and is able to walk, talk and even ride her horse Mathilde.
Her family is now suing the hospital for damages, claiming that doctors had been desperate to harvest her body parts. 'Those bandits in white coats gave up too quickly because they wanted an organ donor,' her father Kim told the Danish newspaper Ekstra Bladet.
Ms Melchior, now 20, crashed her car in October last year. She was in hospital for three days before doctors realized her brain activity was fading and consulted her family about stopping treatment. It was at this point they agreed to donate her organs.
Takeaway: Do not give up the possibility of recovery too soon, especially for young patients.
Earlier posts: What you lose when you sign that donor card. Bleeding Heart Cadavers,
How a donor network 'pressured medics to declare patients dead so they could harvest organs. "This kid is dead, You got that?"
New York hospitals are routinely 'harvesting' organs from patients before they're even dead, an explosive lawsuit is claiming. The suit accuses transplant non-profit The New York Organ Donor Network of bullying doctors into declaring patients brain dead when they are still alive.
Plaintiff, Patrick McMahon, 50, reckons one in five patients is showing signs of brain activity when surgeons declare them dead and start hacking out their body parts. 'They're playing God,' McMahon, a former transplant coordinator who claims he was fired just four months into the role for speaking out about the practice, told The New York Post.
The lawsuit, filed in Manhattan Supreme Court yesterday, cites a 19-year-old car crash victim who was was still struggling to breathe and showing signs of brain activity when doctors gave the green light for his organs to be harvested. Network officials including director Michael Goldstein allegedly bullied Nassau University Medical Center staff into declaring the teen dead, stating during a conference call: 'This kid is dead, you got that?'
McMahon, an Air Force Combat veteran, said he believed the 19-year-old could have recovered. 'I have been in Desert Storm, Iraq and Afghanistan in combat,' he said. 'I worked on massive brain injuries, trauma, gunshot wounds, IEDs. I have seen worse cases than this and the victims recover.
He said that the donor network makes 'millions and millions' from selling the organs they obtain to hospitals and to insurance companies for transplants.
'Hearts, lungs, kidneys, joints, bones, skin graphs, intestines, valves, eyes -- it's all big money,' he said.
The Air Force Combat veteran and former nurse added that financially strained hospitals are easily influenced to declare a patient brain dead because they're keen to free up bed space.
The lawsuit cites three other examples of patients who were still clinging to life when doctors gave a 'note' - an official declaration by a hospital that a patient is brain dead, which, as well as consent from next of kin, is required before a transplant can take place.
McMahon has accused the donor network of having a 'quota' system and hiring 'coaches' to teach staff how to be more persuasive in convincing family members to give consent to organ donation.
He said 'counseling' staff are like sales teams who are pressured to meet targets and threatened with the loss of their jobs if they fall short.
'If you don't meet the quotas then you'll get fired - that's a fact. I saw it happen,' he said.
'You're not there for grief counseling, you're there to get organs. It's all about sales -- and that's pretty much a direct quote from the organization. Counsellors are required to get a 30 per cent consent rate from families.' McMahon added that staff members who collect the most organs throughout the year qualify for a Christmas bonus.
This is a total scandal. I urge you to read Bleeding Heart Cadavers
The exam for brain death is simple. A doctor splashes ice water in your ears (to look for shivering in the eyes), pokes your eyes with a cotton swab and checks for any gag reflex, among other rudimentary tests. It takes less time than a standard eye exam. Finally, in what's called the apnea test, the ventilator is disconnected to see if you can breathe unassisted. If not, you are brain dead. (Some or all of the above tests are repeated hours later for confirmation.)
Here's the weird part. If you fail the apnea test, your respirator is reconnected. You will begin to breathe again, your heart pumping blood, keeping the organs fresh. Doctors like to say that, at this point, the "person" has departed the body. You will now be called a BHC, or beating-heart cadaver.
You might also be emitting brainwaves. Most people are surprised to learn that many people who are declared brain dead are never actually tested for higher-brain activity. The 1968 Harvard committee recommended that doctors use electroencephalography (EEG) to make sure the patient has flat brain waves. Today's tests concentrate on the stalk-like brain stem, in charge of basics such as breathing, sleeping and waking. The EEG would alert doctors if the cortex, the thinking part of your brain, is still active.
But various researchers decided that this test was unnecessary, so it was eliminated from the mandatory criteria in 1971.
And how about some anesthetic? Although he doesn't believe the brain dead feel pain, Dr. Truog has used two light anesthetics, high-dose fentanyl and sufentanil, which won't harm organs, to quell high blood pressure or heart rate during harvesting operations. "If it were my family," he said, "I'd request them."
Lawyers for a man who pleaded guilty Thursday in the first ever federal conviction for illegal organ trafficking say he was performing life-saving services for severely ill people.
Levy Izhak Rosenbaum, from New York, admitted in a Trenton federal court to brokering three illegal kidney transplants for desperate New Jersey-based customers in exchange for payments of $120,000 or more. He also pleaded guilty to a conspiracy count for brokering an illegal kidney sale.
The 60-year-old was arrested two years ago following a huge investigation into corruption in New Jersey.
The probe led to 46 arrests, including several rabbis, the New York Daily News reports.
He was nabbed after an FBI informant who was pretending to be a businessman told him he was looking for a new kidney for a sick uncle
Rosenbaum was caught on tape boasting that he had brokered 'quite a lot' of illegal transplants.
He told the informant: 'I am what you call a matchmaker.'
'I bring a guy what I believe, he's suitable for your uncle ... I've never had a failure.'
Prosecutors said he bought the organs from vulnerable people in Israel for as little as $10,000, then sold them here for a minimum of $120,000.
New Jersey's U.S. Attorney Paul Fishman said: 'A black market in human organs is not only a grave threat to public health, it reserves lifesaving treatment for those who can best afford it at the expense of those who cannot. We will not tolerate such an affront to human dignity.'
Under 1984 federal law, it is illegal for anyone to knowingly buy or sell organs for transplant.
In the commencement address Steve Jobs gave in 2005 at Stanford University, he told three stories, the first about connecting the dots, the second about love and loss and the third about death.
“When I was 17, I read a quote that went something like: ‘If you live each day as if it was your last, someday you'll most certainly be right.’ It made an impression on me, and since then, for the past 33 years, I have looked in the mirror every morning and asked myself: ‘If today were the last day of my life, would I want to do what I am about to do today?’ And whenever the answer has been ‘No’ for too many days in a row, I know I need to change something.
Remembering that I’ll be dead soon is the most important tool I’ve ever encountered to help me make the big choices in life. Because almost everything—all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment or failure—these things just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important. Remembering that you are going to die is the best way I know to avoid the trap of thinking you have something to lose. You are already naked. There is no reason not to follow your heart.
No one wants to die. Even people who want to go to heaven don't want to die to get there. And yet death is the destination we all share. No one has ever escaped it. And that is as it should be, because Death is very likely the single best invention of Life. It is Life's change agent. It clears out the old to make way for the new. Right now the new is you, but someday not too long from now, you will gradually become the old and be cleared away. Sorry to be so dramatic, but it is quite true.”
His difficulty in getting a liver transplant in California because of the long waiting lists - his transplanted liver came from Tennessee - led Jobs to lobby Maria Shriver over a dinner attended and then the Governor. Steve Jobs' Forgotten Life-Saving Legacy
In October 2010, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed into law a bill that made California the first state in the nation to create a live donor registry for kidney transplants. The bill also required California drivers to decide whether they want to be organ donors when they renew their driver licenses. According to one supporter, this second measure alone should double the number of organ transplants available in California. Neither of these life-saving changes to California law would ever have happened without the help of Jobs.
Anne Mozingo claims the institute removed her late husband's entire brain - along with its lining, plus his liver, spleen and pituitary gland - without her consent after he died of a brain aneurysm in 2000.
The lawsuit – which claims include infliction of emotional distress, fraud and negligent misrepresentation - accused the defendants of acting ‘beyond all possible bounds of decency.’
The institute denies any wrong doing and says it never knowingly obtained brains without full consent from next of kin.
It says it used a network of ‘brain harvesters’ in Maine and three other states to collect hundreds of brains for use in the study of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
The term 'network of 'brain harvesters' is profoundly creepy.
So, let’s be clear: Mentally ill and disabled people are being euthanized and harvested in Belgium! But rather than an outcry, instead we merely have learned journal articles dispassionately describing the whole thing. To use a metaphor: Jack Kevorkian is euthanizing Hippocrates–and the world yawns. Unless the euthanasia organ harvest is outlawed, it will mark the end of medical morality.
Surgeons retrieving organs for transplant just after a donor’s heart stops beating would no longer have to wait at least two minutes to be sure the heart doesn’t spontaneously start beating again under new rules being considered by the group that coordinates organ allocation in the United States.
The organization is also poised to eliminate what many consider a central bulwark protecting patients in such already controversial cases: an explicit ban on even considering anyone for those donations before doctors and family members have independently decided to stop trying to save them.
Critics, however, say the move heightens the risk that potential donors will be treated more like tissue banks than like sick people deserving every chance to live, or to die peacefully.
“This is another step towards this idea of hovering, hovering, hovering to get more organs,” said Michael A. Grodin, a professor of health law, bioethics and human rights at Boston University. “The bottom line is that they want to do everything they can to increase organ donation.”
You can't even wait 2 minutes for my heart to stop beating before you start harvesting organs?
If this is enacted, I'm going to revoke my organ donation directive.